Biology is a field of science which investigates the structure of living organisms and how they interact and coexist with each other. Biological studies date back to some of the earliest civilizations where it became a dominant factor for the Greeks in literature, philosophy and contemplation. The Greeks are responsible for the naming of this field of science along with many others which were spread throughout the ancient and modern world.
Research and contemplation into biology were not limited to Western civilizations. Medieval Islamic scholars heavily researched fields of biology and other natural science disciplines which were recorded in detail and found in libraries throughout their empire. Perhaps some of the most famous early biologists include Aristotle, Diocles, Galen, Al-Jahiz, Al-Dinawari, Rhazes, Abd-el-latif, Andreas Vesalius, and Carl Linnaeus. Today biology is taught to children from elementary school throughout college courses.
Studies in biology typically begin by examining the simplest forms of life consisting of singled celled organisms and microorganisms. Being the earliest forms of life, microorganisms are an essential area of study to understand the basic aspects behind all complex forms of life. These include concepts such as reproduction, cell division, mitosis, meiosis and binary fission. Complex forms of life such as animals and plants often rely on microorganisms to reproduce and ensure the survival of a species.
Plant biology, also known as botany, is often examined in earlier courses of biological studies as well. Energy is an integral aspect of all living organisms and the majority of energy distributed to animals comes from plants. Plants convert energy from sunlight and other nutrients to synthesize energy sources which can easily be consumed by animals. Photosynthesis is the process which makes this possible. Along with producing food sources, plants convert gases in the atmosphere into the oxygen compound other living organisms need to survive.
Studies into genetics originated in research conducted into botany. These originally began by examining gene expression in plants in an attempt to breed more beneficial strains of plants for food and medicinal purposes. Ironically to some, cloning has been used in plants for centuries despite its rather unpopular view by many in its application towards animals. Genetic studies today have resulted in a number of supported and opposed views such ranging from disease research, genetic disabilities, genetic modification, food production, medical research and environmental studies.
Biology is often closely associated with chemistry as many complex organisms require chemical reactions to sustain life. Respiration, food digestion, sexual reproduction and cell repair are just some examples of chemical phenomenons in living organisms. As with most disciplines of science biology is intertwined with properties of chemistry and physics to create the unique existence we experience as living organisms.
Biology is perhaps the earliest discipline of science explored by humans and documented by ancient civilizations opening a doorway to modern scientific studies. It is only natural that the existence and origin of life was a curious facet of early human thinking and development. Modern science continues to pursue the boundaries of life even searching for other instances of the creation of life on plants outside our solar system.